Risk-limiting dispatch for integrating renewable power

TitleRisk-limiting dispatch for integrating renewable power
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsRam Rajagopal, Eilyan Bitar, Pravin Varaiya, Felix Wu
JournalInternational Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems
Pagination615 - 628
Date Published01/2013
KeywordsCERTS, reliability and markets, renewables integration, reserve markets, RM11-006

Risk-limiting dispatch or RLD is formulated as the optimal solution to a multi-stage, stochastic decision problem. At each stage, the system operator (SO) purchases forward energy and reserve capacity over a block or interval of time. The blocks get shorter as operations approach real time. Each decision is based on the most recent available information, including demand, renewable power, weather forecasts. The accumulated energy blocks must at each time t match the net demand D(t) = L(t) − W(t). The load L and renewable power W are both random processes. The expected cost of a dispatch is the sum of the costs of the energy and reserve capacity and the penalty or risk from mismatch between net demand and energy supply. The paper derives computable ‘closed-form’ formulas for RLD. Numerical examples demonstrate that the minimum expected cost can be substantially reduced by recognizing that risk from current decisions can be mitigated by future decisions; by additional intra-day energy and reserve capacity markets; and by better forecasts. These reductions are quantified and can be used to explore changes in the SO’s decision structure, forecasting technology, and renewable penetration.

Short TitleInternational Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems