|Title||A Probabilistic Loading-dependent Model of Cascading Failure and Possible Implications for Blackouts|
|Publication Type||Conference Proceedings|
|Year of Publication||2003|
|Authors||Ian Dobson, Benjamin A Carreras, David E Newman|
|Conference Name||Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences|
|Keywords||AA01-001, AARD, CERTS, power interruptions, RTGRM, System Security Tools|
A model has been developed to study the global complex dynamics of a series of blackouts in power transmission systems. This model has included a simple level of self-organization by incorporating the growth of power demand and the engineering response to system failures. Two types of blackouts have been identified with different dynamical properties. One type of blackout involves loss of load due to lines reaching their load limits but no line outages. The second type of blackout is associated with multiple line outages. The dominance of one type of blackouts versus the other depends on operational conditions and the proximity of the system to one of its two critical points. The first critical point is characterized by operation with lines close to their line limits. The second critical point is characterized by the maximum in the fluctuations of the load demand being near the generator margin capability. The identification of this second critical point is an indication that the increase of the generator capability as a response to the increase of the load demand must be included in the dynamical model to achieve a higher degree of self-organization. When this is done, the model shows a probability distribution of blackout sizes with power tails similar to that observed in real blackout data from North America.