Loads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand

TitleLoads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand
Publication TypeReport
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsKaranjit Kalsi, J. Hansen, Jason C Fuller, Laurentiu D Marinovici, Marcelo A Elizondo, T. Williams, Jianming Lian, Y. Sun
Date Published12/2015
InstitutionPacific Northwest National Laboratory
Report NumberPNNL-SA-25397
Keywordsfrequency response, LR11-010
In this report, a new frequency responsive load (FRL) controller was proposed based on the GFA controller, which can respond to both over and under-frequency events. A supervisory control was introduced to coordinate the autonomous response from FRLs in order to overcome the issues of excessive system response due to high penetration of FRLs. The effectiveness of the proposed FRL controller was demonstrated by large-scale simulation studies on the WECC system. Specifically, the FRLs were deployed in the WECC system at different penetration levels to analyze the performance of the proposed strategy, both with and without supervisory level control. While both methods have their own advantages, the case without supervisory control could lead to system-wide instability, depending on the size of the contingency and the number of FRLs deployed in the system. In addition, the voltage impacts of this controller on distribution system were also carefully investigated. Finally, a preliminary measurement and verification approach was also developed.