Loads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand

TitleLoads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand
Publication TypeReport
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsKaranjit Kalsi, Jianming Lian, Laurentiu D Marinovici, Marcelo A Elizondo, W. Zhang, Christian Moya
Date Published09/2014
InstitutionPacific Northwest National Laboratory
KeywordsLoad as a Resource, LR11-010

Frequency control plays an important role in preserving the power balance of a multi-machine power system. Generators modify their power output when a non-zero frequency deviation is presented in order to restore power balance across the network. However, with plans for large-scale penetration of renewable energy resources, performing primary frequency control using only supply-side resources becomes not only prohibitively expensive, but also technically difficult. Frequency control from the demand side or load control presents a novel and viable way for providing the desired frequency response. Loads can measure frequency locally and change their power consumption after a non-zero frequency deviation is presented in order to achieve power balance between generation and consumption. The specific objectives of this project are to:

- Provide a framework to facilitate large-scale deployment of frequency responsive end-use devices
- Systematically design decentralized frequency-based load control strategies for enhanced stability performance
- Ensure applicability over wide range of operating conditions while accounting for unpredictable end-use behavior and physical device constraints
- Test and validate control strategy using large-scale simulations and field demonstrations
- Create a level-playing field for smart grid assets with conventional generators