This paper presents the results of a model order sensitivity study performed on ARMA-based electromechanical mode estimation algorithms under ambient power system conditions. Both single- and multichannel versions of the Yule-Walker (YW) and Least Squares (LS) approaches are considered along with a Recursive Maximum Likelihood (RML) estimator. An extensive Monte Carlo study was performed using a reduced-order model of the Western United States power system, where it was seen that while all of the algorithms had similar accuracy in their best case scenarios, the YW algorithms were far less sensitive to changes in model order. These results are supported with a study using data measured from the actual WECC system. Additionally, the study revealed a numerical instability inherent to the RML approach that has identified an important area of future work.

1 aDosiek, Luke1 aTrudnowski, Daniel, J.1 aPierre, John, W. uhttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8273803/http://xplorestaging.ieee.org/ielx7/8263544/8273724/08273803.pdf?arnumber=827380301277nas a2200133 4500008003900000245004400039210003900083260003400122300001000156520087700166653001301043100002001056856006701076 2016 d00aThe measurand: The problem of frequency0 ameasurand The problem of frequency aTaipei, TaiwanbIEEEc07/2016 a1 - 53 aThe conceptual entity that metrologists term the measurand is a model selected to represent the physical entity being measured. In a world of digital measurements, it should be defined first mathematically, and only then put into words. Human linguistic processes lack the precision required when all we do is use labels. In this paper, reactive power and frequency are used as examples. The act of measurement finds the values of the coefficients of the model. In other words, it solves an equation. In a digital instrument, information about the quality of the fit between the physical entity being measured and the conceptual model is often available. In essence the instrument can comment on the selection of the model. This comment should be reported as part of the statement of the result of the measurement, along with the declared value and the uncertainty.

10aAA14-0011 aKirkham, Harold uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/measurand-problem-frequency02252nas a2200169 4500008003900000245006900039210006800108260003500176300001600211520168500227653001301912100002301925700002101948700002201969700002001991856007102011 2016 d00aMechanism design for self-reporting baselines in Demand Response0 aMechanism design for selfreporting baselines in Demand Response aBoston, MA, USAbIEEEc07/2016 a1446 - 14513 aIncentive-based Demand Response (DR) is a widely used tool to reduce the demand for electricity at times when the supply is scarce and expensive. In such DR programs, participating consumers are paid for reducing their energy consumption from an established baseline. This baseline is often based on the average historical consumption of a peer group on days that are similar to the upcoming DR event. In essence, baselines are estimates of the counter-factual consumption against which the aggregator measures load reductions and determines payments to the consumers in DR programs. Consumers have an incentive to inflate their baseline to increase the payments they receive. There are celebrated cases of consumers gaming this baseline to derive economic benefit. Several researchers have questioned the fairness of these baseline schemes used in current practice. We propose a novel DR mechanism to address gaming and fairness concerns. In our mechanism, each consumer forecasts their baseline consumption and reports their marginal utility to the aggregator who manages the DR program. Deviations in consumption from the self-reported baseline are penalized, providing an incentive for best-effort truthful estimation of baselines. The aggregator selects a set of consumers for each DR event to meet a load reduction requirement and are paid according to the observed reductions from their reported baseline. We show that truthful reporting of baseline and marginal utility is both incentive compatible and individually rational for every consumer. This establishes the correct baseline and the aggregator is able to meet any random load reduction requirement reliably.

10aRM11-0061 aMuthirayan, Deepan1 aKalathil, Dileep1 aPoolla, Kameshwar1 aVaraiya, Pravin uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/mechanism-design-self-reporting01300nas a2200169 4500008003900000245008600039210006900125260003800194300001600232520072300248653001300971100001800984700001901002700002201021700002001043856006701063 2016 d00aModel and data analysis of two-settlement electricity market with virtual bidding0 aModel and data analysis of twosettlement electricity market with aLas Vegas, NV, USAbIEEEc12/2016 a6645 - 66503 aSystematic nonzero spreads, defined as the differences between day-ahead and real-time prices, are routinely observed in the wholesale electricity markets. Virtual bidding is a financial mechanism which aims to reduce the magnitude of spreads by allowing market participants to arbitrage on the spread. We follow a data-driven approach to develop a two-settlement market model, and consider a game-theoretic setting with virtual bidders as strategic players. We interpret the spread as a measure of the average forecast accuracy of the market and all the virtual bidders. The main results convey the implication that introducing more qualified virtual bidders into the market help the convergence of the spread.

10aRM11-0061 aTang, Wenyuan1 aRajagopal, Ram1 aPoolla, Kameshwar1 aVaraiya, Pravin uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/model-and-data-analysis-two01569nas a2200145 4500008003900000245011600039210006900155260004000224300001000264520102400274653001301298100002201311700001801333856007201351 2016 d00aModeling the uncertainties in renewable generation and smart grid loads for the study of the grid vulnerability0 aModeling the uncertainties in renewable generation and smart gri aMinneapolis, MN, USAbIEEEc09/2016 a1 - 53 aThe uncertainties of power systems are becoming more and more important due to power systems restructuring and ever increasing renewable generation integration into the grid. In the literature several uncertainty modeling approaches have been proposed to facilitate decision making process for efficient operation of power systems. These approaches mainly focus on deriving a statistical representation for different sources of uncertainty such as load, generation, and line capacities. However, there is a need for an uncertainty model which can capture the frequency components of uncertainty signals for applications such as voltage control, frequency control/ stability, and grid vulnerability analysis. In this paper we proposed an uncertainty modeling approach that captures the high dynamics of renewable generation uncertainty and smart grid loads and reveals their frequency domain characteristics. We tested the proposed model on IEEE 300 bus system to evaluate the impact of uncertainty on line flows.

10aRM14-0031 aAthari, Mir, Hadi1 aWang, Zhifang uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/modeling-uncertainties-renewable02172nas a2200145 4500008003900000245010600039210006900145260003400214300001600248520163800264653001301902100002501915700001801940856006801958 2016 d00aA Multi-objective Optimization Algorithm for Bus Type Assignments in Random Topology Power Grid Model0 aMultiobjective Optimization Algorithm for Bus Type Assignments i aKoloa, HI, USAbIEEEc01/2016 a2446 - 24553 aOur previous work proposed a random topology power grid model, called RT-nested-smallworld, formulated based on a comprehensive study of the real-world grid topologies and electrical properties. The model can be used to produce a sufficiently large number of power grid test cases with scalable network size and featuring the same kind of small-world topology and electrical characteristics found in realistic grids. However, the proposed RT-power grid model has a shortcoming that is its random assignment of bus types (i.e. Generation, Load, or Connection), which is inconsistent with that of a realistic grid. Because our recent study found that the bus type assignment in a realistic power grid is not random but a correlated one. With the help of Bus Type Entropy, a novel measure which provides a quantitative means to better represent the correlation of bus type assignments in a grid topology, we propose a multi-objective optimization algorithm for the bus type assignments in the random topology power grid modeling. The proposed search algorithm is able to locate the best set of bus type assignments for a given random "electrical" topology generated by RT-nested-smallworld, so that each bus type assignment in the target set will have a Bus Type Entropy value close to that of a realistic grid with comparable network size. In order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed multi-objective algorithm, we experiment our algorithm on three sets of realistic power systems, namely, the IEEE-300 bus system, the NYISO system and the MPC system. The obtained results confirm the validity of our proposed method.

10aRM14-0031 aElyas, Seyyed, Hamid1 aWang, Zhifang uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/multi-objective-optimization01123nas a2200145 4500008003900000245005700039210005600096260003500152300001000187520066300197653001300860100001500873700001500888856007400903 2016 d00aMulti-proxy interchange scheduling under uncertainty0 aMultiproxy interchange scheduling under uncertainty aBoston, MA, USAbIEEEc07/2016 a1 - 53 aThe problem of inter-regional interchange scheduling using a multiple proxy bus representation is considered. A new scheduling technique is proposed for the multi-proxy bus system based on a stochastic optimization that captures uncertainty in renewable generation and stochastic load. In particular, the proposed algorithm iteratively optimizes the interchange across multiple proxy buses using a vectorized notion of demand and supply functions. The proposed technique leverages the operator's capability of forecasting locational marginal prices (LMPs) and obtains the optimal interchange schedule directly without iterations between operators.

10aRM13-0021 aJi, Yuting1 aTong, Lang uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/multi-proxy-interchange-scheduling01124nas a2200121 4500008003900000245006000039210005700099260001200156520073800168653001000906653001400916856007200930 2015 d00aManufacturing Perspective, Future Trends & Technologies0 aManufacturing Perspective Future Trends Technologies c09/20153 aThe workshop seeks to bring together the power system and end-use manufacturing communities to review jointly what is now known about FIDVR and the related activities currently underway to ensure the reliability of the U.S. electric power system.

**Session Three: Manufacturing Perspective, Future Trends, and Technologies (Panel Session)**

Perspectives from the manufacturing community focusing on current and future trends in control design and engineering, end-use requirements, and future technologies.

- John Halliwell, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)
- John Berdner, Emphase Energy
- Tim Hawkins, Rheen
- Hung Pham, Emerson Climate Technologies

This paper analyzes the theoretical accuracy limitation of synchrophasors measurements on phase angle and frequency of the power grid. Factors that cause the measurement error are analyzed, including error sources in the instruments and in the power grid signal. Different scenarios of these factors are evaluated according to the normal operation status of power grid measurement. Based on the evaluation and simulation, the errors of phase angle and frequency caused by each factor are calculated and discussed.

10aAA15-0031 aZhao, Jiecheng1 aZhan, Lingwei1 aLiu, Yilu1 aQi, Hairong1 aGarcia, Jose, R.1 aEwing, Paul, D. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/measurement-accuracy-limitation01646nas a2200157 4500008003900000245005000039210004800089260003500137300001000172520113800182653001301320100002201333700003601355700002101391856007601412 2015 d00aMeasurement-based real-time economic dispatch0 aMeasurementbased realtime economic dispatch aDenver, CO, USAbIEEEc07/2015 a1 - 53 aIn this paper, we propose a measurement-based approach to the real-time economic dispatch (ED). The realtime ED is a widely used market scheduling problem seeking to economically balance electricity system supply and demand and provide locational marginal prices (LMPs) while respecting system reliability requirements. The ED is a convex optimization problem with a linear or quadratic objective, typically the minimization of generator costs or the maximization of social surplus. The constraints capture power balance and network flow capacity limits and are formulated using a linearized power flow model. Our approach utilizes power system sensitivities estimated from phasor measurement unit (PMU) measurements to reformulate the model-based power flow and network flow constraints. The resulting measurement-based real-time ED overcomes the vulnerabilities of the model-based real-time ED. The dispatch instructions and LMPs calculated with our measurement-based real-time ED accurately, and adaptively, reflect real-time system conditions. We illustrate the strengths of the proposed approach via several case studies.

10aAA05-0051 aVan Horn, Kai, E.1 aDominguez-Garcia, Alejandro, D.1 aSauer, Peter, W. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/measurement-based-real-time-economic01739nas a2200181 4500008003900000022001400039245007100053210006800124260001200192300001100204490000700215520116700222653001301389100002201402700003601424700002101460856007601481 2015 d a0885-895000aMeasurement-Based Real-Time Security-Constrained Economic Dispatch0 aMeasurementBased RealTime SecurityConstrained Economic Dispatch c12/2015 a1 - 130 vPP3 aIn this paper, we propose a measurement-based approach to the real-time security-constrained economic dispatch (SCED). The real-time SCED is a widely used market scheduling tool that seeks to economically balance electricity supply and demand and provide locational marginal prices (LMPs), while ensuring system reliability standards are met. To capture network flows and security considerations, the conventional SCED formulation relies on sensitivities that are typically computed from a linearized power flow model, which is vulnerable to phenomena such as undetected topology changes, changes in the system operating point, and the existence of incorrect model data. Our approach to the formulation of the SCED problem utilizes power system sensitivities estimated from phasor measurement unit (PMU) measurements. The resulting measurement-based real-time SCED is robust against the aforementioned phenomena. Moreover, the dispatch instructions and LMPs calculated with the proposed measurement-based SCED accurately reflect real-time system conditions and security needs. We illustrate the strengths of the proposed approach via several case studies.

10aAA05-0051 aVan Horn, Kai, E.1 aDominguez-Garcia, Alejandro, D.1 aSauer, Peter, W. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/measurement-based-real-time-security01538nas a2200229 4500008003900000022001400039245007800053210006900131260001200200300001600212490000700228520085900235653001301094653000901107653001001116653003601126653001001162100002101172700001801193700002101211856007601232 2015 d a0885-895000aMethodology for Performing Synchrophasor Data Conditioning and Validation0 aMethodology for Performing Synchrophasor Data Conditioning and V c05/2015 a1121 - 11300 v303 aA phasor measurement unit (PMU) only state estimator is intrinsically superior to its SCADA analogue with respect to speed, performance, and reliability. However, ensuring the quality of the data stream which enters the linear estimator is crucial before establishing it as the front end of an EMS or other network applications. One approach is to pre-process the phasor data before it arrives at the linear estimator. This paper presents an algorithm for synchrophasor data conditioning and repair that fits neatly as a prefix into the existing linear state estimation formulation. The methodology has been tested using field data obtained from PMUs installed in Dominion Virginia Power's (DVP's) EHV network. The results indicate that the proposed technique provides a computationally simple, elegant solution to the synchrophasor data quality problem.10aAA13-00310aAARD10aCERTS10aphasor measurement units (PMUs)10aRTGRM1 aJones, Kevin, D.1 aPal, Anamitra1 aThorp, James, S. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/methodology-performing-synchrophasor01299nas a2200193 4500008003900000022001400039245007800053210006900131260001200200300001000212520071500222653001300937653000900950653001000959653001000969100002200979700003801001856006601039 2015 d a1949-305300aModal Analysis of Ambient PMU Measurements Using Orthogonal Wavelet Bases0 aModal Analysis of Ambient PMU Measurements Using Orthogonal Wave c03/2015 a1 - 13 aThis paper proposes a new method, called wavelet scale decomposition, for modal analysis of ambient synchrophasor data using orthogonal wavelet bases. Wavelet formulation of the problem enables reliable estimation results even with short data analysis windows that are a few minutes long. Also, in addition to finding the mode frequency and damping ratio of oscillatory modes, the proposed method is able to estimate their mode shapes as well. The method is tested on some archived real phasor measurement unit data sets and on simulations from Kundur two area system. The results show that the proposed method is able to track damping ratio variations in power systems effectively with short analysis windows.10aAA13-00410aAARD10aCERTS10aRTGRM1 aKhalilinia, Hamed1 aVenkatasubramanian, Vaithianathan uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/modal-analysis-ambient-pmu01994nas a2200169 4500008003900000245006800039210006800107260003600175300001400211520142800225653002001653653002801673653001301701100002301714700001501737856007201752 2015 d00aModel predictive control of thermal storage for demand response0 aModel predictive control of thermal storage for demand response aChicago, IL, USAbIEEEc07/2015 a956 - 9613 aBuildings with thermal storage use it mainly to shift cooling loads. Ice or chilled water is produced when electricity prices are low and stored to provide cooling when prices are high. While this price-based load shifting has value for power system operators, buildings with thermal storage could provide more direct grid services by reacting to demand charges and demand response calls. In this paper, we consider the problem of cooling a building under these incentives. The context is a New York City office building with passive and active thermal storage, subject to Consolidated Edison's (ConEd's) default rate plan for large commercial buildings. This rate plan includes a three-tiered demand charge and hourly energy prices determined by the system operator's day-ahead dispatch. We also model a ConEd demand response program, and consider the thermal comfort of building occupants. The problem is formulated in the language of stochastic optimal control and solved approximately using model predictive control (MPC). Extending previous work on MPC of thermal storage, which has focused on dynamic energy prices, we include the full set of economic incentives directly in the stage and terminal costs. Simulations of the hottest day of 2013 demonstrate the value of realistic economic modeling. They also highlight an interesting tension between the various incentives, which all compete for shiftable load.

10ademand response10areliability and markets10aRM11-0091 aKircher, Kevin, J.1 aZhang, Max uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/model-predictive-control-thermal01149nas a2200157 4500008003900000245010300039210006900142260003900211300001000250520057300260653001300833100002100846700002600867700002100893856007700914 2015 d00aModeling and analysis of the CERTS microgrid with natural gas powered distributed energy resources0 aModeling and analysis of the CERTS microgrid with natural gas po aCalgary, AB, CanadabIEEEc05/2015 a1 - 83 aDistributed energy resources (DERs) powered by natural gas engines are becoming more popular in several nations. This paper presents the modeling and analysis of engine fuel map limits on natural gas powered DERs installed at the CERTS Microgrid. A physics-based approach is used for correct modeling of the limiting conditions in DERs. The distinguishing characteristics of both inverter-based and synchronous generator-based DERs are established. Furthermore, the performance of CERTS Microgrid under is shown for different case studies of islanded operation.

10aMG-TB0031 aRenjit, Ajit, A.1 aIllindala, Mahesh, S.1 aKlapp, David, A. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/modeling-and-analysis-certs-microgrid01636nas a2200241 4500008003900000022001400039245009300053210006900146260001100215300001600226490000700242520084900249653000901098653003901107653001001146653001801156653003601174653002801210100002401238700003601262700002101298856007501319 2014 d a0885-895000aMeasurement-Based Estimation of Linear Sensitivity Distribution Factors and Applications0 aMeasurementBased Estimation of Linear Sensitivity Distribution F c5/2014 a1372 - 13820 v293 aIn this paper, we propose a method to compute linear sensitivity distribution factors (DFs) in near real-time. The method does not rely on the system power flow model. Instead, it uses only high-frequency synchronized data collected from phasor measurement units to estimate the injection shift factors through linear least-squares estimation, after which other DFs can be easily computed. Such a measurement-based approach is desirable since it is adaptive to changes in system operating point and topology. We further improve the adaptability of the proposed approach to such changes by using weighted and recursive least-squares estimation. Through numerical examples, we illustrate the advantages of our proposed DF estimation approach over the conventional model-based one in the context of contingency analysis and generation re-dispatch.10aAARD10aAutomatic Switchable Network (ASN)10aCERTS10aload modeling10aphasor measurement units (PMUs)10apower system monitoring1 aChen, Yu, Christine1 aDominguez-Garcia, Alejandro, D.1 aSauer, Peter, W. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/measurement-based-estimation-linear02060nas a2200205 4500008003900000022001400039245009700053210006900150260001200219300001400231490000700245520139000252653001001642653002401652653002801676100002701704700001801731700002801749856007701777 2014 d a0885-895000aAn MIP Formulation for Joint Market-Clearing of Energy and Reserves Based on Ramp Scheduling0 aMIP Formulation for Joint MarketClearing of Energy and Reserves c01/2014 a476 - 4880 v293 aThe day-ahead unit-commitment (UC)-based market-clearing (MC) is widely acknowledged to be the most economically efficient mechanism for scheduling resources in power systems. In conventional UC problems, power schedules are used to represent the staircase energy schedule. However, the realizability of this schedule cannot be guaranteed due to the violation of ramping limits, and hence conventional UC formulations do not manage the flexibility of generating units efficiently. This paper provides a UC-based MC formulation, drawing a clear distinction between power and energy. Demand and generation are modeled as hourly piecewise-linear functions representing their instantaneous power trajectories. The schedule of generating unit output is no longer a staircase function, but a smoother function that respects all ramp constraints. The formulation represents in detail the operating reserves (online and offline), their time deployment limits (e.g., 15 min), their potential substitution, and their limits according to the actual ramp schedule. Startup and shutdown power trajectories are also modeled, and thus a more efficient energy and reserves schedule is obtained. The model is formulated as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem, and was tested with a 10-unit and 100-unit system in which its computational performance was compared with a traditional UC formulation.10aCERTS10aelectricity markets10areliability and markets1 aMorales-Espana, German1 aRamos, Andres1 aGarcia-Gonzalez, Javier uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/mip-formulation-joint-market-clearing01744nas a2200205 4500008003900000020002200039245009600061210006900157260003700226300001600263520102300279653002801302653001301330653001501343100002001358700002601378700003701404700002201441856007501463 2014 d a978-1-4799-3272-600aModel Predictive Control of regulation services from commercial buildings to the smart grid0 aModel Predictive Control of regulation services from commercial aPortland, OR, USAbIEEEc06/2014 a2226 - 22333 aWe first demonstrate that the demand-side flexibility of the Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system of a typical commercial building can be exploited for providing frequency regulation service to the power grid using at-scale experiments. We then show how this flexibility in power consumption of building HVAC system can be leveraged for providing regulation service. To this end, we consider a simplified model of the power grid with uncertain demand and generation. We present a Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme to direct the ancillary service power flow from buildings to improve upon the classical Automatic Generation Control (AGC) practice. We show how constraints such as slow and fast ramping rates for various ancillary service providers, and short-term load forecast information can be integrated into the proposed MPC framework. Finally, we provide extensive simulation results to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology for enhancing grid frequency regulation.

10areliability and markets10aRM11-00610asmart grid1 aMaasoumy, Mehdi1 aSanandaji, Borhan, M.1 aSangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto1 aPoolla, Kameshwar uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/model-predictive-control-regulation00598nas a2200109 4500008003900000245010200039210006900141260010100210653000900311653001000320856015800330 2014 d00aModel Validation and System Performance Analysis for PDCI RAS Event that Occurred on May 30, 20130 aModel Validation and System Performance Analysis for PDCI RAS Ev bWestern Electricity Coordinating Council Modeling and Validation Work Group (WECC MVWG)c02/201410aAARD10aRTGRM uhttps://www.wecc.biz/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=/Reliability/May%2030%202013%20Model%20Validation%20Report.pdf&action=default&DefaultItemOpen=101310nas a2200157 4500008003900000245008900039210006900128260003400197520076200231653001300993100001501006700001701021700002201038700002001060856007201080 2014 d00aModeling, Analysis and Evaluation of Smart Load Functionality in the CERTS Microgrid0 aModeling Analysis and Evaluation of Smart Load Functionality in aPittsburgh, PAbIEEEc09/20143 aThe objective of this work is primarily aimed at investigating the behavior of the CERTS Microgrid test bed with the integration of smart loads. The smart loads are primarily employed to relieve the system frequency as soon as it begins to deteriorate. The installed smart load assembly is modeled in this paper and its performance with the different distributed energy resources (DERs) in the existing CERTS Microgrid test bed is analyzed. This paper also evaluates the benefits of using these smart loads as a means to prevent the DERs from stalling in the islanded mode of operation. |

The objective of this work is primarily aimed at investigating the behavior of the CERTS Microgrid test bed with the integration of smart loads. The smart loads are primarily employed to relieve the system frequency as soon as it begins to deteriorate. The installed smart load assembly is modeled in this paper and its performance with the different distributed energy resources (DERs) in the existing CERTS Microgrid test bed is analyzed. This paper also evaluates the benefits of using these smart loads as a means to prevent the DERs from stalling in the islanded mode of operation.

10aMG-TB0031 aMondal, Abrez1 aKlapp, David, A.1 aIllindala, Mahesh, S.1 aEto, Joseph, H. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/modeling-analysis-and-evaluation-001678nas a2200181 4500008003900000245006700039210006600106260003800172300001000210520108300220653001501303100002101318700002001339700001601359700002501375700002201400856007401422 2014 d00aModeling of second-life batteries for use in a CERTS microgrid0 aModeling of secondlife batteries for use in a CERTS microgrid aChampaign, IL, USAbIEEEc03/2014 a1 - 83 aA second-life battery is an electric vehicle battery pack that has reached an end-of-life condition for its vehicular use, yet retains enough performance to be re-purposed for another application. One promising application of a second-life battery is stationary energy storage within a CERTS microgrid. This paper investigates the modeling of multiple paralleled traction battery packs within a CERTS microgrid, examining the impacts of elevated internal pack impedance on microgrid system operation. Impedance spectroscopy and hybrid-pulse power characterization are used to model vehicular Li-ion cells under a range of conditions that include second-life aging. The ac bus dynamics of the microgrid model are validated experimentally. Second-life battery models are incorporated into two CERTS microgrid architectures and system-level effects of changing the battery impedance are explored. Simulation results indicate that the modeled EV second-life batteries deliver promising performance characteristics in both CERTS microgrid architectures that were investigated.

10amicrogrids1 aHart, Philip, J.1 aKollmeyer, P.J.1 aJuang, L.W.1 aLasseter, Robert, H.1 aJahns, Thomas, M. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/modeling-second-life-batteries-use01630nas a2200169 4500008003900000245006500039210006400104260002200168300001200190490000700202520109000209653002701299100002001326700001901346700002001365856007501385 2014 d00aMulti-scale analysis of wind power and load time series data0 aMultiscale analysis of wind power and load time series data bElsevierc08/2014 a494-5040 v683 aThis paper presents novel analyses of high-resolution wind power and electric system load time series data. We use a discrete wavelet transform to resolve the data into independent time series of step changes (deltas) at different time scales, and present a variety of statistical metrics as a function of the time scale. We show that the probability distribution for wind power deltas is not Gaussian, has an exponential shape near the center and is well fit by a power-law in the tails. We provide a physical interpretation for the observed power-law behavior, and discuss the potential significance for modeling studies, prediction of extreme events, and the extrapolation of statistical characteristics to higher wind penetration levels. Several metrics are presented to quantify the degree of auto-correlation in the wind data, and of the correlations between wind and load. We show that the shape of the autocorrelation function is the same at different time scales, a property of self-similar statistical processes that is consistent with the observed power-law behavior.

10arenewables integration1 aCoughlin, Katie1 aMurthi, Aditya1 aEto, Joseph, H. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/multi-scale-analysis-wind-power-and01919nas a2200253 4500008003900000020002200039245012100061210006900182260003500251300001600286520105600302653002801358653001301386653001301399100002001412700002401432700002301456700002501479700001501504700002501519700002501544700001901569856007701588 2013 d a978-1-4673-5933-700aMapping Energy Futures Using the SuperOPF Planning Tool: An Integrated Engineering, Economic and Environmental Model0 aMapping Energy Futures Using the SuperOPF Planning Tool An Integ aWailea, HI, USAbIEEEc01/2013 a2120 - 21293 aEnergy futures for modern economies depend critically on the electric power system. Estimating the long-run benefits and costs of proposed energy or environmental policies requires tools that optimize investment in generation, account for physical constraints on the delivery network while maintaining desired reliability, and characterize the adverse impacts of pollutants. An integrated engineering, economic, environmental modeling framework is described (Super OPF Planning Tool) that maximizes the net expected benefits of electricity production, optimizes retirements and investment in new generation by location, accounts for environmental and other regulations, and includes likely demand responses to resulting price changes. Simulations testing the Super OPF Planning Tool using a reduced network model of the Northeast power system are described, and they suggest that policies that assess the full cost for energy-use usually result in more effective outcomes in terms of lives saved at lower prices than do regulatory alternatives.

10areliability and markets10aRM12-00210aSuperOPF1 aTaber, John, T.1 aShawhan, Daniel, L.1 aZimmerman, Ray, D.1 aMarquet, Charles, M.1 aZhang, Max1 aSchulze, William, D.1 aSchuler, Richard, E.1 aWhitley, Steve uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/mapping-energy-futures-using-superopf00665nas a2200145 4500008003900000245004500039210004500084260001200129520019500141653001300336653003900349653003300388100002500421856007300446 2013 d00aMISO Grid Reliability Performance Report0 aMISO Grid Reliability Performance Report c07/20133 aThe objective of this report is to provide a summary of historical (last 24 hours) Grid reliability performance metrics for voltage, stability and thermal for MISO Transmission Zones.

10aMISO-GPM10areliability metrics and monitoring10areliability monitoring tools1 aMartinez, Carlos, A. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/miso-grid-reliability-performance01298nas a2200157 4500008003900000245008300039210006900122260003300191300001000224520075200234653002800986653001301014100002601027700001501053856007201068 2013 d00aMitigating risk of random resources within a two-settlement electricity market0 aMitigating risk of random resources within a twosettlement elect aVancouver, BCbIEEEc07/2013 a1 - 53 aBased on a two-settlement electricity market model built within a stochastic programming framework, this paper proposes a market-clearing mechanism that allows flexible random participants - such as variable renewable energy resources and price-sensitive load-serving entities - to mitigate their risks of facing economic losses in the market. More precisely, the mechanism extends to flexible random participants the risk-mitigating capabilities that reserve capacity offers enable for firm generators (i.e., conventional generators). The proposed mechanism is based on the premise that flexible random participants should be remunerated for the partial control capabilities they may have over their resources in spite of their randomness.

10areliability and markets10aRM11-0031 aMunoz-Alvarez, Daniel1 aTong, Lang uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/mitigating-risk-random-resources02020nas a2200253 4500008003900000022001400039245008400053210006900137260001200206300001400218490000700232520124900239653001301488653000901501653003901510653003601549653001801585100001701603700001501620700002101635700001801656700002001674856007201694 2013 d a0885-895000aMode shape estimation algorithms under ambient conditions: A comparative review0 aMode shape estimation algorithms under ambient conditions A comp c05/2013 a779 - 7870 v283 aThis paper provides a comparative review of five existing ambient electromechanical mode shape estimation algorithms, i.e., the Transfer Function (TF), Spectral, Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), Channel Matching, and Subspace Methods. It is also shown that the TF Method is a general approach to estimating mode shape and that the Spectral, FDD, and Channel Matching Methods are actually special cases of it. Additionally, some of the variations of the Subspace Method are reviewed and the Numerical algorithm for Subspace State Space System IDentification (N4SID) is implemented. The five algorithms are then compared using data simulated from a 17-machine model of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) under ambient conditions with both low and high damping, as well as during the case where ambient data is disrupted by an oscillatory ringdown. The performance of the algorithms is compared using the statistics from Monte Carlo simulations and results from measured WECC data, and a discussion of the practical issues surrounding their implementation, including cases where power system probing is an option, is provided. The paper concludes with some recommendations as to the appropriate use of the various techniques.10aAA07-00110aAARD10aAutomatic Switchable Network (ASN)10aphasor measurement units (PMUs)10apower systems1 aDosiek, Luke1 aZhou, Ning1 aPierre, John, W.1 aHuang, Zhenyu1 aTrudnowski, Dan uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/mode-shape-estimation-algorithms01681nas a2200229 4500008003900000245007900039210006900118260003500187300001600222520092400238653001001162653003901172653001301211653002301224653001501247100002101262700002601283700002501309700002401334700002101358856007201379 2013 d00aModeling and control of a natural gas generator set in the CERTS microgrid0 aModeling and control of a natural gas generator set in the CERTS aDenver, CO, USAbIEEEc09/2013 a1640 - 16463 aThe recent addition to the CERTS microgrid was a commercial off-the-shelf natural gas engine generator set, also referred as gen-set. With this incorporation, the CERTS microgrid that earlier consisted of the same kind of inverter-based combined heat & power (CHP) distributed energy resources (DERs), has got transformed into a diverse/mixed microgrid. As the gen-set came equipped with an isochronous speed governor and ac brushless type exciter, a few enhancements became necessary for augmenting it with CERTS controls that enable capabilities of plug-and-play operation, and seamless islanding and reconnection with the utility grid. This paper describes the modeling and control of gen-set. The models developed are validated with experimental testing against large step changes in load. Performance of gen-set with CERTS controls is demonstrated in different modes of operation of the mixed microgrid.

10aCERTS10adistributed energy resources (der)10aMG-TB00310amicrogrid test bed10amicrogrids1 aRenjit, Ajit, A.1 aIllindala, Mahesh, S.1 aLasseter, Robert, H.1 aErickson, Micah, J.1 aKlapp, David, A. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/modeling-and-control-natural-gas01785nas a2200181 4500008003900000245008900039210006900128260002800197300000800225520117100233653002301404653002301427653001301450100001901463700002601482700001901508856007601527 2012 d00aMeasuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement0 aMeasuring Shortterm Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operat aBerkeleybLBNLc01/2012 a1203 aSeveral recent demonstrations and pilots have shown that air conditioner (AC) electric loads can be controlled during the summer cooling season to provide ancillary services and improve the stability and reliability of the electricity grid. A key issue for integration of air conditioner load control into grid operations is how to accurately measure shorter-term (e.g., ten's of minutes to a couple of hours) demand reductions from AC load curtailments for operations and settlement. This report presents a framework for assessing the accuracy of shorter-term AC load control demand reduction measurements. It also compares the accuracy of various alternatives for measuring AC reductions — including methods that rely on regression analysis, load matching and control groups — using feeder data, household data and AC end-use data. A practical approach is recommended for settlement that relies on set of tables, updated annually, with pre-calculated load reduction estimates. The tables allow users to look up the demand reduction per device based on the daily maximum temperature, geographic region and hour of day and simplify the settlement process.

10acontrollable loads10aLoad as a Resource10aLR00-0011 aBode, Josh, L.1 aSullivan, Michael, J.1 aEto, Joseph, H uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/measuring-short-term-air-conditioner01709nas a2200241 4500008003900000022001400039245010900053210006900162260001200231300001200243490000700255520093400262653001001196653001401206653002901220653002701249653002801276653001301304100002301317700003201340700002301372856007201395 2011 d a0885-895000aMATPOWER: Steady-State Operations, Planning, and Analysis Tools for Power Systems Research and Education0 aMATPOWER SteadyState Operations Planning and Analysis Tools for c02/2011 a12 - 190 v263 aMATPOWER is an open-source Matlab-based power system simulation package that provides a high-level set of power flow, optimal power flow (OPF), and other tools targeted toward researchers, educators, and students. The OPF architecture is designed to be extensible, making it easy to add user-defined variables, costs, and constraints to the standard OPF problem. This paper presents the details of the network modeling and problem formulations used by MATPOWER, including its extensible OPF architecture. This structure is used internally to implement several extensions to the standard OPF problem, including piece-wise linear cost functions, dispatchable loads, generator capability curves, and branch angle difference limits. Simulation results are presented for a number of test cases comparing the performance of several available OPF solvers and demonstrating MATPOWER's ability to solve large-scale AC and DC OPF problems.10aCERTS10aload flow10aoptimal power flow (OPF)10apower system economics10areliability and markets10aRM07-0021 aZimmerman, Ray, D.1 aMurillo-Sanchez, Carlos, E.1 aThomas, Robert, J. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/matpower-steady-state-operations01571nas a2200241 4500008003900000020002200039245008200061210006900143260003600212300001000248520076300258653001301021653000901034653003901043653003601082653002901118100001501147700001801162700002501180700002001205700002901225856007501254 2011 d a978-1-4577-1000-100aA modified stepwise linear regression method for estimating modal sensitivity0 amodified stepwise linear regression method for estimating modal aDetroit, MI, USAbIEEEc07/2011 a1 - 73 aSmall signal stability problems are one of the major threats to grid stability and reliability. Low damping of inter area modes is usually considered to be a result of heavy power transfer over long distances. This paper proposes a modified stepwise regression method to estimate the modal sensitivity with respect to power flow on the transmission lines based on measurement. This sensitivity is used to identify dominant transmission lines, whose power flow has significant influence on the inter-area modal damping. It is shown through simulation study that the proposed method can effectively estimate the modal sensitivity with respect to line power flow. This, in turn, provides insight on how to improve damping through adjusting tie line flow.

10aAA09-00210aAARD10aAutomatic Switchable Network (ASN)10aphasor measurement units (PMUs)10apower system reliability1 aZhou, Ning1 aHuang, Zhenyu1 aTuffner, Francis, K.1 aTrudnowski, Dan1 aMittelstadt, William, A. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/modified-stepwise-linear-regression01698nas a2200277 4500008003900000245011600039210006900155260001200224300000700236520082500243653001301068653000901081653003801090653001001128100001801138700001901156700001501175700002201190700002501212700002901237700001601266700002001282700002001302700002301322856007501345 2010 d00aMANGO - Modal Analysis for Grid Operation: A Method for Damping Improvements through Operating Point Adjustment0 aMANGO Modal Analysis for Grid Operation A Method for Damping Imp c10/2010 a923 aWith more and more phasor measurements available and ModeMeter techniques maturing, there is yet a need for methods to bring modal analysis from monitoring to actions. The methods should be able to associate low damping with grid operating conditions, so operators or automated operation schemes can respond when low damping is observed. The work presented in this report aims to develop such a method and establish a Modal Analysis for Grid Operation (MANGO) procedure to provide recommended actions (such as generation re-dispatch or load reduction), and aid grid operation decision making for mitigating inter-area oscillations. This project directly contributes to the Department of Energy Transmission Reliability Program's goal of "improving reliability of the nation's electricity delivery infrastructure."

10aAA07-00110aAARD10aadvanced measurements and control10aCERTS1 aHuang, Zhenyu1 aDiao, Ruisheng1 aZhou, Ning1 aFuller, Jason, C.1 aTuffner, Francis, K.1 aMittelstadt, William, A.1 aChen, Yousu1 aHauer, John, F.1 aTrudnowski, Dan1 aDagle, Jeffery, E. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/mango-modal-analysis-grid-operation01571nas a2200217 4500008003900000020002200039245012000061210006900181260004100250300001000291520079800301653001301099653000901112653003901121653003001160653003601190100002201226700001401248700002001262856007101282 2010 d a978-1-4244-5509-600aMerging PMU, Operational, and Non-Operational Data for Interpreting Alarms, Locating Faults and Preventing Cascades0 aMerging PMU Operational and NonOperational Data for Interpreting aHonolulu, Hawaii, USAbIEEEc01/2010 a1 - 93 aWith the development of synchronized sampling technique and other advanced measurement approaches, the merging of various substation data to be used in new applications in the EMS solutions has not yet been explored adequately. This paper deals with the integration of time correlated information from Phasor Measurement Units, SCADA and non-operational data captured by other intelligent electronic devices such as protective relays and digital fault recorders, as well as their applications in alarm processing, fault location and cascading event analysis. A set of new control center visualization tools shows that the merging of PMU, operational and non-operational data could improve the effectiveness of alarm processing, accuracy of fault location and ability to detect cascades.

10aAA05-00310aAARD10aAutomatic Switchable Network (ASN)10aenergy management systems10aphasor measurement units (PMUs)1 aKezunovic, Mladen1 aZheng, Ce1 aPang, Chengzong uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/merging-pmu-operational-and-non00980nas a2200169 4500008004100000245003900041210003900080260005400119520045200173653002500625653001000650653003100660653001000691653000900701100002600710856007400736 2010 eng d00aModeling and Studying FIDVR Events0 aModeling and Studying FIDVR Events bWestern Electricity Coordinating Councilc12/20103 aThe objective of this paper is to inform the operating and planning entities within WECC on the development of the composite load model, the model applicability to the studies of Fault-Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR), and potential implications to the reliability criteria. The paper also makes recommendations on improving FIDVR monitoring, load model validation, steps towards load model implementation, and reliability criteria review.10acomposite load model10aFIDVR10aFIDVR Composite Load Model10aRTINA10aWECC1 aGroup, WECC, Modeling uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/modeling-and-studying-fidvr-events01545nas a2200229 4500008003900000022001400039245007100053210006900124260001200193300001600205490000700221520083200228653001301060653000901073653003901082653002401121653002601145100003101171700002401202700001701226856007201243 2008 d a0885-895000aMultifrontal Solver for Online Power System Time-Domain Simulation0 aMultifrontal Solver for Online Power System TimeDomain Simulatio c11/2008 a1727 - 17370 v233 aThis paper proposes the application of unsymmetric multifrontal method to solve the differential algebraic equations (DAE) encountered in the power system dynamic simulation. The proposed method achieves great computational efficiency as compared to the conventional Gaussian elimination methods and other linear sparse solvers due to the inherent parallel hierarchy present in the multifrontal methods. Multifrontal methods transform or reorganize the task of factorizing a large sparse matrix into a sequence of partial factorization of smaller dense frontal matrices which utilize the efficient Basic linear algebra subprograms 3 (BLAS 3) for dense matrix kernels. The proposed method is compared with the full Gaussian elimination methods and other direct sparse solvers on test systems and the results are reported.

10aAA09-00110aAARD10aAutomatic Switchable Network (ASN)10adynamic simulations10aPower system dynamics1 aKhaitan, Siddhartha, Kumar1 aMcCalley, James, D.1 aChen, Qiming uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/multifrontal-solver-online-power01841nas a2200145 4500008003900000245010100039210006900140260002900209520128300238653003901521653002301560653002501583100001901608856006801627 2006 d00aMaintain, Enhance, and Improve Reliability of California’s Electric System under Restructuring0 aMaintain Enhance and Improve Reliability of California s Electri aBerekeleybLBNLc03/20063 aCalifornia's electric power system is in transition from one that has been centrally planned and controlled to one that will be increasingly dependent on competitive market forces to determine its operation and expansion. Electric networks pose unique challenges resulting from the need to match supply and demand in real-time and the rapid propagation of disturbances throughout the grid. Yet, the transition is incomplete and has led to, among other things, under-investment in grid infrastructure. These challenges are being exacerbated as the existing grid is called upon to support an increased number of market transactions. This project was a five-year program of research and technology development aimed at maintaining and enhancing the reliability of California's interconnected power system by mitigating outages while increasing the system's flexibility for the market-based supply of electric service. The project was organized around five major research areas:

- Grid of the Future
- Real-Time System Monitoring and Control
- Integration of Distributed Energy Resources
- Reliability and Markets
- Demand Response (Load as a Reliability Resource)

Each research area, in turn, encompassed multiple research tasks.

10adistributed energy resources (der)10aGrid of the Future10areal-time monitoring1 aEto, Joseph, H uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/maintain-enhance-and-improve01912nas a2200241 4500008003900000245006200039210006100101260003200162300000700194520115200201653002201353653002801375653002701403653001301430100002301443700002301466700002501489700002501514700002301539700002401562700001801586856006601604 2006 d00aMarkets for Reactive Power and Reliability: A White Paper0 aMarkets for Reactive Power and Reliability A White Paper bCornell Universityc12/2006 a573 aThis analysis addresses that issue, but in the much broader context of determining an optimal bulk power supply system, both in terms of such a system's operation and of its investments for capacity in transmission lines, generation, and capacitors. This broad, integrated perspective is required because of the complex interactions between individual aspects of the electricity supply system. By using the economic objective of maximizing net benefits to society (gains from consumption of electricity that is reliably provided at stable voltages minus the cost of efficient provision), we not only determine optimal levels of energy consumption and installed capacity of facilities but also estimate the socially optimal level of reliability endogenously by weighing its benefits and costs. By adopting the perspective of a benevolent social planner, the analysis identifies the decisions that can be decentralized and determined efficiently through markets and the services that, because they have public-good-like attributes, require some intervention by a central authority to properly provide that aspect of the electric power supply.

10aMarket mechanisms10areliability and markets10areliability management10aRM06-0031 aThomas, Robert, J.1 aMount, Timothy, D.1 aSchuler, Richard, E.1 aSchulze, William, D.1 aZimmerman, Ray, D.1 aShawhan, Daniel, L.1 aToomey, David uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/markets-reactive-power-and01271nas a2200169 4500008003900000245008000039210006900119260003500188300001400223520070900237653001300946100001800959700001500977700002100992700001901013856006901032 2006 d00aModel Validation of Power System Components Using Hybrid Dynamic Simulation0 aModel Validation of Power System Components Using Hybrid Dynamic aDallas, TX, USAbIEEEc05/2006 a153 - 1603 aHybrid dynamic simulation, with its capability of injecting external signals into dynamic simulation, opens the traditional dynamic simulation loop for interaction with actual field measurements. This simulation technique enables rigorous comparison between simulation results and actual measurements and model validation of individual power system components within a small subsystem. This paper uses a real example of generator model validation to illustrate the procedure and validity of the component model validation methodology using hybrid dynamic simulation. Initial model calibration has also been carried out to show how model validation results would be used to improve component models

10aAA07-0011 aHuang, Zhenyu1 aNguyen, T.1 aKosterev, Dmitry1 aGuttromson, R. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/model-validation-power-system03472nas a2200241 4500008003900000245010300039210006900142260003200211300000600243520267900249653001002928653002202938653002802960653002702988653001303015100001803028700001803046700002503064700002503089700001803114700002303132856007503155 2005 d00aMarket Structure and the Predictability of Electricity System Line Flows: An Experimental Analysis0 aMarket Structure and the Predictability of Electricity System Li bCornell Universityc01/2005 a93 aRobert Thomas has shown, using simulations of experimental results, that the power flow on any line in an electric network is linearly proportional to the total system load when that system is optimally dispatched using accurate generator cost data. By comparison, when offers from generators obtained in a wholesale market that is not perfectly competitive are used to dispatch the system, that relationship between line flow and system load becomes nearly random. These simulations were conducted in a single-sided market environment, however, that is typical of most wholesale market regimes around the world. Here the central dispatcher (ISO, RTO, etc.) accumulates the demand from various buyers and satisfies that load with a least-cost purchase schedule, regardless of price, subject to all of the physical and reliability constraints imposed on the system. If buyers were also able to submit a schedule of bids that are related to price, does the same random relationship between line-flows and system load prevail?

This experimental analysis demonstrates that letting the customers participate fully in the market reestablishes the predictability of line flows as a function of system load. In all of these experiments there are no restrictions on permissible offering behavior by suppliers (e.g. no price caps, prohibitions on withholding capacity or automated mitigation procedures). Two alternative forms of demand side participation are considered: 1) a demand response program (DRP) where customers are alerted to high prices in the subsequent period and are paid a pre-specified amount for each kWh less than their benchmark level of usage for that period, and 2) a real time pricing program (RTP) where customers are given forecasts of prices for each period over the subsequent day and they then pay the actual period-by-period market clearing price. As a benchmark, these experiments with six suppliers and seventeen buyers are also repeated where customers pay an average constant price in all periods (FP); although in all cases sellers receive the market-clearing price in each period. R-squares were greater, variances were smaller and the t-tests on regression coefficients were stronger on the relationship between line-flow and system load for RTP, as compared to the FP system that is commonly used in most electricity markets. DRP was usually somewhere in between. Not only does inducing active customer participation in the market through RTP lead to better system predictability, it also reduces price spikes and leads to greater overall economic efficiency in these markets. It is a winner on both economic and operational grounds.

10aCERTS10aMarket mechanisms10areliability and markets10areliability management10aRM06-0021 aAdilov, Nodir1 aLight, Thomas1 aSchuler, Richard, E.1 aSchulze, William, D.1 aToomey, David1 aZimmerman, Ray, D. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/market-structure-and-predictability01786nas a2200145 4500008003900000245007700039210006900116260002800185300000700213520128900220653001201509100002401521700001801545856007701563 2005 d00aMicroturbine Economic Competitiveness: A Study of Two Potential Adopters0 aMicroturbine Economic Competitiveness A Study of Two Potential A aBerkeleybLBNLc12/2005 a493 aThis project evaluates what $/kW subsidy on microturbines (MT's) makes them economically competitive with natural gas internal combustion engines (ICE's). The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is used to determine least cost solutions, including distributed generation (DG) investment and operation, to sites' energy demands. The first site considered is a hospital in New York City. The small hospital (90 beds) has a peak electric load (including cooling) of 1200 kW, with heat loads comparable to electric loads. Consolidated Edison electricity and natural gas tariffs for 2003 are used. A 60% minimum DG system efficiency is imposed on DG operation to avoid the standby tariff, which is less amenable to DG than the parent tariff. The second site considered is the Naval Base Ventura County commissary in Southern California. The commissary has 13,000 m^{2} of floor space and contains a large retail store, supermarket, food court, and other small businesses. The site peak electric load (including cooling) is 1050 kW. Electricity and natural gas supply are from direct access contracts, and delivery service is provided by Southern California Edison and Southern California Gas, respectively. 2003 supply and delivery rates are used.

This paper explores a mathematical method for detecting groups of generators in an electric power system that have the potential to benefit from exercising market power. Applications of this method include metrics for measuring or detecting the possibility of market power. This paper focuses on the properties of revenue and dispatch to bid sensitivity matrices, and develops methods of identifying load pockets from the sensitivity matrices, and how the matrices can provide metrics for market power.

10aelectricity markets10aMarket mechanisms10areliability and markets10areliability management1 aCain, Mary, B.1 aAlvarado, Fernando, L. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/metrics-application-revenue01369nas a2200169 4500008003900000245003700039210003600076260001800112300000600130520090500136653001001041653002201051653001501073100002501088700001701113856006901130 2004 d00aMicrogrid: A Conceptual Solution0 aMicrogrid A Conceptual Solution bIEEEc06/2004 a63 aApplication of individual distributed generators can cause as many problems as it may solve. A better way to realize the emerging potential of distributed generation is to take a system approach which views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a "microgrid". During disturbances, the generation and corresponding loads can separate from the distribution system to isolate the microgrid's load from the disturbance (providing UPS services) without harming the transmission grid's integrity. This ability to island generation and loads together has a potential to provide a higher local reliability than that provided by the power system as a whole. In this model it is also critical to be able to use the waste heat by placing the sources near the heat load. This implies that a unit can be placed at any point on the electrical system as required by the location of the heat load.

10aCERTS10amicrogrid concept10amicrogrids1 aLasseter, Robert, H.1 aPiagi, Paolo uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/microgrid-conceptual-solution02618nas a2200193 4500008003900000245009700039210006900136260001200205300000700217520196400224653002202188653002802210653002702238653001302265100002302278700002502301700002502326856007302351 2003 d00aMarkets for Reliability and Financial Options in Electricity: Theory to Support the Practice0 aMarkets for Reliability and Financial Options in Electricity The c01/2003 a103 aThe underlying structure of why and how consumers value reliability of electric service is explored, together with the technological options and cost characteristics for the provision of reliability and the conditions under which market mechanisms can be used to match these values and costs efficiently. This analysis shows that the level of reliability of electricity provided through a network is a public good within a neighborhood, and unless planned demand reductions by customers have the identical negative value as an unexpected service interruption, market mechanisms will not reveal the true value of reliability. A public agency must determine that value and enforce the reliability criteria. Furthermore, in order to get an efficient level of demand response by customers in periods of system stress, they must see real time energy prices plus they must be paid an amount equal to the suppliers' cost of adding reliability to the system, if that amount is not included in real time prices.

An illustration is provided of how VARs might be scheduled and priced in contributing to system reliability, and a co-optimization procedure is required to determine energy and reserves simultaneously, similar to the method proposed by Chen, Thorp, Thomas, and Mount for locational reserves. The optimization can be decomposed into a two step process — first, both required capacity and energy are selected based upon suppliers' offers over both dimensions through the minimization of expected costs over the list of contingencies necessary to satisfy the reliability criteria. This first step commits the reserves, but energy supplies are allocated in real time based upon the previous offer prices but the actual realized state of the electric system. This procedure which satisfies physical realities has a natural parallel in financial markets that have a forward option market with a strike price, followed by real time market clearing.

10aMarket mechanisms10areliability and markets10areliability management10aRM05-0011 aMount, Timothy, D.1 aSchulze, William, D.1 aSchuler, Richard, E. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/markets-reliability-and-financial01186nas a2200193 4500008003900000245003900039210003900078260001900117520055400136653006900690653003000759653001300789653002300802100002000825700002500845700002500870700002300895856007400918 2003 d00aMicrogrid Energy Management System0 aMicrogrid Energy Management System bCERTSc01/20033 aA microgrid is defined as an aggregation of electrical loads and generation. The generators in the microgrid may be microturbines, fuel cells, reciprocating engines, or any of a number of alternate power sources. A microgrid may take the form of shopping center, industrial park or college campus. To the utility, a microgrid is an electrical load that can be controlled in magnitude. The load could be constant, or the load could increase at night when electricity is cheaper, or the load could be held at zero during times of system stress.

10aconsortium for electric reliability technology solutions (certs)10aenergy management systems10aMG-TB00110amicrogrid test bed1 aKueck, John, D.1 aStaunton, Robert, H.1 aLabinov, Solomon, D.1 aKirby, Brendan, J. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/microgrid-energy-management-system01465nas a2200169 4500008003900000245006500039210006300104260001900167300000800186520091800194653002201112653002801134653002701162100002701189700001301216856006601229 2001 d00aMethodology for Automatic Zone Creation/Merging/Partitioning0 aMethodology for Automatic Zone CreationMergingPartitioning bCERTSc05/2001 a1603 aThe objective of this report is to investigate methodologies for zone creation suitable for zonal pricing by the California ISO. It is recognized that in meshed networks, zones are only approximations to individual node pricing. The objective, however, is to create zones that closely approximate the "correct" nodal prices under most conditions and where the majority of the "commercially significant" value of the locational pricing is captured. The report starts with a review of congestion concepts, then proceeds with a review of nodal and zonal pricing, it then reviews the CAISO's own criteria for zone partitioning, it then evaluates the notion of "nodal price patterns," and finally, using the notion of nodal price pattern it defines a methodology for zone creation and partitioning and finally demonstrates its used by means of an example. It concludes with some suggestions and recommendations.

10aMarket mechanisms10areliability and markets10areliability management1 aAlvarado, Fernando, L.1 aLiu, Wei uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/methodology-automatic-zone