This paper is written to raise awareness of an important problem in the area of transformers, reactive power and geomagnetically-induced currents. The problem is important because of the possibility of transformer failure leading to prolonged and widespread blackouts. An estimate by Lloyd's, an insurer, puts the risk of insurance losses at between 0.6and2.6 trillion in the event of a major geomagnetic storm. While the risk of this storm is low, the chances of our power system surviving it are simply not known. Those chances depend, to a large extent, on the definition and measurement of reactive power, a topic that has been the subject of a long and sometimes bitter debate. This paper contributes to a solution by explaining the definition problem and pointing a way to a solution. The solution relies on aspects of measurement theory that have been developed in the last half-century or so. Anyone concerned with GIC and reactive power, and in particular the impact on transformers, should not feel comfortable.

1 aKirkham, H.1 aWhite, D.R. uhttps://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8494870/01549nas a2200229 4500008004100000245003800041210003800079260003200117520086500149653001301014100001601027700001301043700001501056700001401071700002101085700001601106700001801122700001801140700001601158700001401174856013101188 2018 eng d00aTeaching Measurement Fundamentals0 aTeaching Measurement Fundamentals aRiga, LatviabIEEEc03/20193 aWhile it has always been true that measurements are made to guide decision-making, there is abundant evidence that not all measurement results are meaningful. We give examples of fully-functional, tested and trusted measurement systems producing nonsensical results. A common characteristic of such systems is they are designed without a clear understanding of the purpose or context of the measurements. To help ensure measurements are designed and used fit for the intended purpose, we propose that, in addition to the appropriate instrumentation, technology, and techniques, all engineering and science students be taught the basics of measurement theory and an overview of measurement infrastructure. We estimate that this can be accomplished in a single semester course. Essential and important elements of the syllabus are considered.

10aAA14-0011 aKirkham, H.1 aAlbu, M.1 aEngels, M.1 aFrigo, G.1 aHedayatipour, A.1 aLaverty, D.1 avon Meier, A.1 aRiepnieks, A.1 aWhite, D.R.1 aYang, Z-M uhttps://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8659902/http://xplorestaging.ieee.org/ielx7/8651665/8659805/08659902.pdf?arnumber=865990201549nas a2200229 4500008004100000245003800041210003800079260003200117520086500149653001301014100001601027700001301043700001501056700001401071700002101085700001601106700001801122700001801140700001601158700001401174856013101188 2018 eng d00aTeaching Measurement Fundamentals0 aTeaching Measurement Fundamentals aRiga, LatviabIEEEc03/20193 aWhile it has always been true that measurements are made to guide decision-making, there is abundant evidence that not all measurement results are meaningful. We give examples of fully-functional, tested and trusted measurement systems producing nonsensical results. A common characteristic of such systems is they are designed without a clear understanding of the purpose or context of the measurements. To help ensure measurements are designed and used fit for the intended purpose, we propose that, in addition to the appropriate instrumentation, technology, and techniques, all engineering and science students be taught the basics of measurement theory and an overview of measurement infrastructure. We estimate that this can be accomplished in a single semester course. Essential and important elements of the syllabus are considered.

10aAA14-0011 aKirkham, H.1 aAlbu, M.1 aEngels, M.1 aFrigo, G.1 aHedayatipour, A.1 aLaverty, D.1 avon Meier, A.1 aRiepnieks, A.1 aWhite, D.R.1 aYang, Z-M uhttps://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8659902/http://xplorestaging.ieee.org/ielx7/8651665/8659805/08659902.pdf?arnumber=8659902