02010nas a2200229 4500008003900000022001400039245007400053210007100127260001200198300001200210490000700222520131900229653001301548653000901561653003901570653003601609653001501645100001401660700001701674700001601691856007301707 2011 d a0885-895000aTransition to a Two-Level Linear State Estimatorâ€”Part II: Algorithm0 aTransition to a TwoLevel Linear State Estimatorâ€”Part II Algorith c02/2011 a54 - 620 v263 aThe availability of synchro-phasor data has raised the possibility of a linear state estimator if the inputs are only complex currents and voltages and if there are enough such measurements to meet observability and redundancy requirements. Moreover, the new digital substations can perform some of the computation at the substation itself resulting in a more accurate two-level state estimator. The main contribution in this paper is that this two-level processing removes the bad data and topology errors, which are major problems today, at the substation level. In Part I of the paper, we describe the layered architecture of databases, communications, and the application programs that are required to support this two-level linear state estimator. In Part II, we describe the mathematical algorithms that are different from those in the existing literature. As the availability of phasor measurements at substations will increase gradually, this paper describes how the state estimator can be enhanced to handle both the traditional state estimator and the proposed linear state estimator simultaneously. This provides a way to immediately utilize the benefits in those parts of the system where such phasor measurements become available and provides a pathway to transition to the "smart" grid of the future.10aAA05-00210aAARD10aAutomatic Switchable Network (ASN)10aphasor measurement units (PMUs)10asmart grid1 aYang, Tao1 aSun, Hongbin1 aBose, Anjan uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/transition-two-level-linear-state01531nas a2200217 4500008003900000020002200039245004700061210004500108260003600153300001000189520087300199653001301072653000901085653003901094653003601133653002501169100001401194700001701208700001601225856007201241 2009 d a978-1-4244-3810-500aTwo-level PMU-based linear state estimator0 aTwolevel PMUbased linear state estimator aSeattle, WA, USAbIEEEc03/2009 a1 - 63 aThe State Estimator function in a control center today is a suite of three programs solved sequentially: topology processing, state estimation, and bad data detection-identification. The state estimation equations are nonlinear because the inputs are mostly real and reactive power measurements. A linear state estimator is possible if the inputs are only complex currents and voltages and if there are enough such measurements to meet observability and redundancy requirements. The main contribution in this paper is the suggestion that the topology processing function and the bad data detection-identification be done at each substation rather than at the control center. It is shown how this two-level processing is faster and more accurate leaving the control center level state estimator solution free of the bad data errors that are major problems today.

10aAA05-00210aAARD10aAutomatic Switchable Network (ASN)10aphasor measurement units (PMUs)10apower system control1 aYang, Tao1 aSun, Hongbin1 aBose, Anjan uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/two-level-pmu-based-linear-state