We present a contract for integrating renewable energy supply and electricity spot markets for serving deferrable electric loads in order to mitigate renewable energy intermittency. The contract which we describe results in a stochastic optimal control problem for minimizing the cost of serving flexible load. We solve the optimal control problem by using a recombinant lattice for modeling renewable power supply and electricity spot price uncertainty. We compare various control policies, and we analyze the sensitivity of our results with respect to various problem parameters.

10aelectricity markets10areliability and markets10arenewables integration10aRM10-0011 aPapavasiliou, Anthony1 aSergio, Bittanti1 aSergio, Bittanti1 aEdoardo, Mosca uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/integration-contracted-renewable01292nas a2200241 4500008003900000022001400039245010300053210006900156260001200225300001600237490000700253520052100260653002900781653002800810653002500838653001300863653001600876653001500892100002600907700002100933700002500954856007100979 2011 d a0885-895000aReserve Requirements for Wind Power Integration: A Scenario-Based Stochastic Programming Framework0 aReserve Requirements for Wind Power Integration A ScenarioBased c11/2011 a2197 - 22060 v263 aWe present a two-stage stochastic programming model for committing reserves in systems with large amounts of wind power. We describe wind power generation in terms of a representative set of appropriately weighted scenarios, and we present a dual decomposition algorithm for solving the resulting stochastic program. We test our scenario generation methodology on a model of California consisting of 122 generators, and we show that the stochastic programming unit commitment policy outperforms common reserve rules.10apower system reliability10areliability and markets10areserve requirements10aRM10-00110auncertainty10awind power1 aPapavasiliou, Anthony1 aOren, Shmuel, S.1 aO'Neill, Richard, P. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/reserve-requirements-wind-power01765nas a2200241 4500008003900000022001400039245011600053210006900169260001100238300001400249490000600263520096900269653002701238653002901265653002801294653001301322100002501335700002101360700002001381700002601401700002101427856007501448 2010 d a1868-396700aEconomic analysis of the N-1 reliable unit commitment and transmission switching problem using duality concepts0 aEconomic analysis of the N1 reliable unit commitment and transmi c5/2010 a165 - 1950 v13 aCurrently, there is a national push for a smarter electric grid, one that is more controllable and flexible. Only limited control and flexibility of electric assets is currently built into electric network optimization models. Optimal transmission switching is a low cost way to leverage grid controllability: to make better use of the existing system and meet growing demand with existing infrastructure. Such control and flexibility can be categorized as a “smart grid application” where there is a co-optimization of both generators or loads and transmission topology. In this paper we form the dual problem and examine the multi-period N-1 reliable unit commitment and transmission switching problem with integer variables fixed to their optimal values. Results including LMPs and marginal cost distributions are presented for the IEEE RTS 96 test problem. The applications of this analysis in improving the efficiency of ISO and RTO markets are discussed.10apower system economics10apower system reliability10areliability and markets10aRM08-0011 aO'Neill, Richard, P.1 aHedman, Kory, W.1 aKrall, Eric, A.1 aPapavasiliou, Anthony1 aOren, Shmuel, S. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/economic-analysis-n-1-reliable-unit01574nas a2200217 4500008003900000020002200039245008500061210006900146260003500215300001000250520083800260653002101098653002401119653002101143653002801164653002701192653001301219100002601232700002101258856007701279 2010 d a978-1-4244-6549-100aSupplying renewable energy to deferrable loads: Algorithms and economic analysis0 aSupplying renewable energy to deferrable loads Algorithms and ec aMinneapolis, MNbIEEEc07/2010 a1 - 83 aIn this paper we propose a direct coupling of renewable generation with deferrable demand in order to mitigate the unpredictable and non-controllable fluctuation of renewable power supply. We cast our problem in the form of a stochastic dynamic program and we characterize the value function of the problem in order to develop efficient solution methods. We develop and compare two algorithms for optimally supplying renewable power to time-flexible electricity loads in the presence of a spot market, backward dynamic programming and approximate dynamic programming. We describe how our proposition compares to price responsive demand in terms capacity gains and energy market revenues for renewable generators, and we determine the optimal capacity of deferrable demand which can be reliably coupled to renewable generation.

10adeferrable loads10aelectricity markets10apower generation10areliability and markets10arenewables integration10aRM10-0011 aPapavasiliou, Anthony1 aOren, Shmuel, S. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/supplying-renewable-energy-deferrable01172nas a2200205 4500008003900000020002200039245007700061210006900138260003500207300001000242520049900252653001000751653002400761653002800785653001300813100002600826700001600852700002100868856007700889 2009 d a978-1-4244-4241-600aEnvironmental regulation in transmission-constrained electricity markets0 aEnvironmental regulation in transmissionconstrained electricity aCalgary, CanadabIEEEc07/2009 a1 - 83 aWe discuss potential competitive effects of regulating carbon emissions in a transmission constrained electricity market. We compare two regulatory instruments, renewable portfolio standards and taxing emmissions. We derive general conclusions about impacts on prices and output on a three node network. We find that renewable portfolio standards increase the market power of nonpolluting generators whereas the tax is market-power neutral. We verify our conclusions through simulations.

10aCERTS10aelectricity markets10areliability and markets10aRM10-0011 aPapavasiliou, Anthony1 aChen, Yihsu1 aOren, Shmuel, S. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/environmental-regulation-transmission01531nas a2200205 4500008003900000020002200039245005100061210005100112260003600163300001000199520088100209653002101090653002401111653002801135653002701163653001301190100002601203700002101229856007501250 2008 d a978-1-4244-2850-200aCoupling Wind Generators with Deferrable Loads0 aCoupling Wind Generators with Deferrable Loads aAtlanta, GA, USAbIEEEc11/2008 a1 - 73 aWe explore the possibility of directly coupling deferrable loads with wind generators in order to mitigate the variability and randomness of wind power generation. Loads engage in a contractual agreement of deferring their demand for power by a fixed amount of time and wind generators optimally allocate available wind power with the objective of minimizing the cost of unscheduled and variable supply. We simulate the performance of the proposed coupling in a market environment and we demonstrate its compatibility with existing technology, grid operations and economic incentives. The results indicate that the combination of existing deregulated power markets and demand side flexibility could support large scale integration of wind power without significant impacts on grid operations and without the requirement for prohibitive investments in backup generation.

10adeferrable loads10aelectricity markets10areliability and markets10arenewables integration10aRM10-0011 aPapavasiliou, Anthony1 aOren, Shmuel, S. uhttps://certs.lbl.gov/publications/coupling-wind-generators-deferrable