|Title||Control and coordination of frequency responsive residential water heaters|
|Publication Type||Conference Paper|
|Year of Publication||2016|
|Authors||Tess Williams, Karanjit Kalsi, Marcelo A Elizondo, Laurentiu D Marinovici, Rick Pratt|
|Conference Name||2016 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM)|
|Conference Location||Boston, MA, USA|
Demand-side frequency control can complement traditional generator controls to maintain the stability of large electric systems in the face of rising uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy resources. This paper presents a hierarchical frequency-based load control strategy that uses a supervisor to flexibly adjust control gains that a population of end-use loads respond to in a decentralized manner to help meet the NERC BAL-003-1 frequency response standard at both the area level and interconnection level. The load model is calibrated and used to model populations of frequency-responsive water heaters in a PowerWorld simulation of the U.S. Western Interconnection (WECC). The proposed design is implemented and demonstrated on physical water heaters in a laboratory setting. A significant fraction of the required frequency response in the WECC could be supplied by electric water heaters alone at penetration levels of less than 15%, while contributing to NERC requirements at the interconnection and area levels.