|Title||The Case for a Simple Two-Sided Electricity Market|
|Publication Type||Conference Paper|
|Year of Publication||2017|
|Authors||Alberto J Lamadrid, Wooyoung Jeon, Hao Lu, Timothy D Mount|
|Conference Name||Hawaii International Conference on Systems Science (HICSS)|
This paper builds on the results from our earlier research on the design of electricity markets that have to accommodate the uncertainty associated with high penetrations of renewable sources of energy. The key results show that (1) distributed storage (deferrable demand) is an effective way to reduce total system costs, (2) a simple market structure for energy allows aggregators to meet their customers' energy needs and provide ramping services to the system operator, and (3) using a receding-horizon optimization to dispatch units for the next market time-step benefits from the availability of more accurate forecasts of renewable generation and allows market participants to adjust their bids and offers in response to this new information. In our two-sided market, distributed storage in the form of deferrable demand is controlled locally by independent aggregators to minimize their expected payments for energy in the wholesale market, subject to meeting the energy needs of their customers. In addition, these aggregators are responsible for maintaining a stable power factor by installing local capabilities that automatically deal with local power imbalances. Failure to do this triggers penalties paid to the system operator.
Our earlier results have shown that it is optimal for an aggregator to submit demand bids into a day-ahead market that include threshold prices for charging and discharging storage and also ensure that the expected amount of stored energy is consistent with the capacity limits of their storage. Because departures from the expected daily pattern of renewable generation are generally persistent (highly positive serial correlated), it is likely that the system operator determines an optimum pattern of demand for the aggregator that violates the capacity limits of storage by the end of the 24-hour period. If the market uses a receding horizon, the results in this paper show that aggregators can modify their bids to ensure that the capacity limits of storage are never violated in the next market time-step.
In an empirical application, a stochastic form of multi-period security constrained unit commitment with optimal power flow (the MATPOWER Optimal Scheduling Tool, MOST) using a receding-horizon optimization determines the optimum dispatch and reserves for the next hour and forecasts of the nodal prices for the next 24 hours. The results show that locally controlled deferrable demand is almost as effective as centrally controlled deferrable demand as a way to reduce system costs and mitigate the variability of renewable generation. The additional advantage from using a receding horizon is that the system operator always charges/discharges the storage managed locally by aggregators within the capacity constraints of the storage.