Aggregate Flexibility of Thermostatically Controlled Loads

TitleAggregate Flexibility of Thermostatically Controlled Loads
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsHe Hao, Borhan M Sanandaji, Kameshwar Poolla, Tyrone L Vincent
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Pagination189 - 198
Date Published01/2015
Keywordsreliability and markets, RM11-006

It is widely accepted that thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) can be used to provide regulation reserve to the grid. We first argue that the aggregate flexibility offered by a collection of TCLs can be succinctly modeled as a stochastic battery with dissipation. We next characterize the power limits and energy capacity of this battery model in terms of TCL parameters and random exogenous variables such as ambient temperature and user-specified set-points. We then describe a direct load control architecture for regulation service provision. Here, we use a priority-stack-based control framework to select which TCLs to control at any time. The control objective is for the aggregate power deviation from baseline to track an automatic generation control signal supplied by the system operator. Simulation studies suggest the practical promise of our methods.

Short TitleIEEE Trans. Power Syst.