Frequency Response Initiative (FRI)

Frequency Response

Frequency response refers to the collective ability of generators (primarily, but loads can also participate) to arrest and reverse sharp declines in interconnection frequency immediately following the unplanned loss of generation. Inadequate frequency response means that widespread cascading blackouts may ensue from the unplanned loss of generation. Recent studies have found declining trends in interconnection frequency response. The Frequency Response Initiative (FRI) sought to confirm and better understand the reasons for these declines and then support actions to reverse them. The initiative confirmed the importance of generator governors in ensuring reliability during frequency response events.

The initiative conducted the technical analysis required to support the adoption of revisions to NERC’s reliability standards to ensure that interconnections and balancing authorities take appropriate actions to ensure adequate frequency response. The initiative also developed monitoring and compliance tools that support the standard. LBNL was involved in four activities in support of the FRI: (1) Technical support for preparation of NERC Frequency Response Initiative report; (2) Frequency event monitoring for all three interconnections; (3) Technical support for revisions to NERC Standard BAL-003; (4) Development of a tool for measuring frequency response.


Related Publications

Etingov, Pavel V, Dmitry Kosterev, and T. Dai. Frequency Response Analysis Tool. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 2014.
Coughlin, Katie, Aditya Murthi, and Joseph H Eto. "Multi-scale analysis of wind power and load time series data." Renewable Energy 68.August 2014 (2014) 494-504. LBNL-1003916.
Martinez, Carlos A. "NERC Frequency Response Standard, Current Status, Issues, and 2010 to 2013 Field Trial Results." NERC Frequency Response Standard (BAL-003-1) 2013.
Coughlin, Katie, and Joseph H Eto. Analysis of Wind Power and Load Data at Multiple Time Scales. Berkeley: LBNL, 2010. LBNL-4147E .